|API Gravity||A scale used to measure fuel weight||Heavy fuel is hard to burn and has a low API.
Light fuel has less heat and less mpg performances, and has high API
|Ash Content||Non-Combustible material||High ash means increased wear, more smoke, lost fuel|
|BS & W||Bottom Sediment and Water Content||Non-usable material in fuel.|
|BTU||The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree||Measure of fuel’s energy output.|
|Cetane||Ignition Quality (Startability)||Low cetane means poor starting.
High cetane means good starting.
|Cloud Point||Wax Formation Temperature
|Fuel at cloud point will flow but will have paraffin wax crystals suspended in fuel. This may plug filters and lines.|
On 10% Bottoms
|Measure of fuel’s tendency to form injector deposits.||High percent means injectors stick, Increase wear, Tip deposits.|
|Distillation||Boiling range/lab test
|EP||End Point||Low EP means less horse-power.
High EP means more smoke, more deposits, more wear.
|Flash Point||Lab test of fuel vapor flame point||Low Flash Point means probable blending with lighter products (handling danger).|
|Hydrogen/Carbon Ratio||Measure of fuel’s major components. Hydrogen and carbon content is used to determine the fuels BTU content (fuel economy)||Will tell the ultimate MPG the fuel will deliver when used.|
|IBP||Initial Boiling Point||Low IBP means lighter fuel.
High IBP means hard to burn
|Same as above
Same as above
Same as above
|Lubricity||Measure of fuel’s lubricity properties||Lack of proper lubrication will increase fuel pump and system wear|
|Fungus or Bacteria spores or growth in fuel||Microbial activity causes fuel filter plugging, injector fouling, system deposits, tank and line corrosion, loss of usable fuel, lower mpg, more smoke, lower power, poor idling|
|Oxidation Stability||Free Carbon formation in fuel due to incompatibility||High test number means unstable fuel, engine deposits, system deposits, increased smoke, low power|
|Solid contaminants present in fuel||Higher amounts result in fuel system deposits, filter fouling, increased smoke, and loss of usable fuel.
Examples: Rust, Dirt, and other foreign materials.
|Pour Point||Jell Temperature (Solid Fuel)||Fuel at pour point temperatures will not flow through lines or filters.
Solid in tanks
|Recovery and Residue||A lab test to determine maximum usable fuel content||Recovery is a lab measurement of usable fuel. Residue is a lab measurement of unusable fuel.|
|Sulfur Content||Fuel contaminant which is a major element in system corrosion and fuel acidity||High sulfur means increased wear, more deposits, oil contamination, more smoke|
|Trace Metals||Contamination of fuel by small amounts of metal particles present in crude oil||Higher amounts mean more deposits, increased wear, decreased fuel stability, increased ash.|
|Viscosity||Measure of Fuel Thickness||Low viscosity can cause injector leaks
and more wear.
High viscosity is hard to burn and gives poor injector spray.